What’s different between Vacuum plating and water plating, what’s process for iPhone
If someone asks you, what is electroplating? What would you say?
Some say water plating, some say vacuum plating. Which one is right? In fact, "electroplating" means different things in different industries. For example, in the current mobile phone industry, water electroplating is rarely used. In many people's minds, electroplating generally refers to vacuum plating, while in the bathroom industry, water electroplating is widely used. Of course, water electroplating generally refers to water electroplating.
Water electroplating and vacuum plating belong to the coating, let us start from the classification of coating, see what is the difference between various types of coating.
Design product process design
Coating by molding method classification is as follows:
1. Solid phase method :--- > chemical change
2. Liquid phase method :--- > chemical change
3. Meteorological method :-- -> chemical changes and physical changes
The detailed classification is as follows:
The commonly used coating methods are: water electroplating, anodic oxidation, vacuum evaporation, vacuum splash plating, ion plating. Next, the above coating methods will be explained one by one from the perspective of CMF engineer.
Water electroplating method:
Key words: anodic dissolution, cathodic adhesion, electrochemical reaction
Water electroplating method is mainly used to create high reflection mirror effect, increase the adhesion layer, etc., its advantages are large area of plating, low cost, disadvantages are high toxicity of electrolyte, industrial pollution.
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Key words: metal oxidation film, electrochemical reaction
Anodic oxidation can also be made into Ta2O2, TiO2, ZrO2, Nb2O5, HfO2, WO3, etc., mainly used as a protective film or decorative coloring film.
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Vacuum evaporation is also called thermal evaporation
Process key words: high temperature evaporation, after deposition coated
Vacuum evaporation can be divided into indirect heating type and direct heating type depending on the heating mode of the film materials.
1. Indirect heating: only for the evaporation source heating, indirectly make the film material on it evaporate due to heat;
2. Direct heating: using high-energy particles (electron beam, plasma or laser) or high frequency, the film material directly placed on the evaporation source heats up and evaporates;
* to avoid evaporation of the source (container) along with the film material, the melting point of the source material must be higher than the boiling point of the film material.
Resistance heating evaporation
The thermal energy generated by the current passing through the resistance is used to indirectly heat the thin film material. The device is as follows:
Resistance heating evaporation
Disadvantages of resistance heating method:
1. Heat the evaporating source first and then transfer heat to the film material. The evaporating source can easily interact with the material or raise impurities;
2. Due to the limited heating temperature of evaporation source, most oxides with high melting point cannot be fused and evaporated;
3. Limited evaporation speed;
4. If the coating material is a compound, it may be decomposed;
5. The film is not hard, not high density, poor adhesion.
Key words: ionized inert gas bombarding target, target falling off, deposition, cooling and film forming
Principle of sputtering coating machine is cavity pumping air into vacuum state, directly by the membrane material (target) as electrodes, using electrodes see electricity 5 kv ~ 15 kv plasma bombardment of target material, ventilation with gas at the same time, gas ionization, moving particles within the plasma, ion impact target material and the material atoms from which deposited on the substrate surface, cooling the condensed into a film.
On the basis of dc sputtering or rf sputtering, the electrode structure is improved, that is, a permanent magnet is installed on the inside of the cathode, and the direction of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of the electric field in the extremely dark area, so that the movement of charged particles can be restrained by the magnetic field. This sputtering method is called magnetron sputtering
Schematic diagram of magnetron sputtering
Since the force of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of the electrons' movement, the centripetal force of electron cyclotron motion will be formed. At this time, the probability of collision between neutral species will increase, and the film can be made at low pressure.
In addition to low pressure, the other two advantages of magnetron sputtering are high speed and low temperature, so it is also called high speed and low temperature sputtering method.
But magnetron sputtering also has some problems, such as for planar magnetic control electrode magnetic control electrode, the central and peripheral target material is not perpendicular to the magnetic field component of the power plant more and more small, i.e. parallel to target surface of magnetic field component is small, in a circular area on the surface of the target material by sputtering unusually fast, while the central and edge sputtering less, so it will be a w-shaped erosional valley, reduce the utilization rate of target material, and may affect the film uniformity.
Key words: vacuum gas discharge, dissociation target, bombardment substrate
The main principle is the use of gas discharge phenomenon, the film material dissociated into ion state, and then deposited on the substrate.
The basic coating system of ion plating is PVD system, but reactive gas is added to make it react with the film material after evaporation and then deposit on the substrate to form compounds. Therefore, the composition of the film coating is different from the original film material and is a compound of the substrate target material.
Ion plating basically consists of three steps:
1. Turning solid atoms into gaseous atoms: various evaporation sources and sputtering mechanisms can be used for vacuum evaporation to achieve this purpose;
2. Change gaseous atoms into ionic states to improve the ionization degree of raw materials (usually up to 1%): various ion elements can be used to transfer energy to raw materials to reach the initial ionization degree;
3. Enhance the energy carried by the ionic state raw material to improve the quality of the film: the ability to accelerate ions can be achieved by adding an appropriate negative bias on the base.
Principle of ion plating
The characteristics of ion plating are as follows:
1. Ion plating can be carried out at a low temperature of 600 degrees;
2. Good adhesion;
3. Well-diffracted - electropositive energy reaches all the basic surfaces and deposits the coating;
4. The deposition speed is fast, up to 1~5um, while the sputtering speed of general secondary plate type is only 0.01~1.0um/min;
5. Wide selection of machinability and film materials, including metal, ceramics, glass and plastics, and wide selection of film materials, including metals, alloys and compounds.
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