PVD, Why do big bathroom brands compete for this technology?
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With the implementation of the eu RoHS directive and the legislation on environmental protection in various countries. The traditional electroplating industry with high pollution has not met the requirement of environmental protection and will be replaced by the new environmental protection technology. In fact, vacuum coating technology has been applied in most industries in China. For example defend bath industry, this kind of technology besides be favor by the international famous brand such as Hans ge ya, gao yi, in domestic ideal wei yu, fu rui wei yu, qi gao the hardware fittings that the shower room enterprise such as wei yu USES also USES vacuum to deposit film means. Typical features seen in daily life are no paint, can be used as a mirror and reflect the portrait is not distorted.
As the world's manufacturing base, guangdong has a large number of products that need surface treatment and decoration. Water plating, spray painting, electrophoresis, anodic oxidation and other methods are used now. But these methods all cause certain pollution to the environment. Vacuum coating is a surface treatment method which has little effect on environment. However, the acquisition of vacuum and plasma equipment precision expensive, large one-time investment, complex equipment maintenance, familiar with the coating process of less talent, resulting in the vacuum coating technology in the domestic promotion is slow. However, with the continuous progress of the society, the advantages of vacuum electroplating will become more and more obvious. It is the general trend to replace the traditional wet water electroplating in many industries.
Vacuum coating technology is basically in a vacuum environment, so they are called vacuum coating technology. Product coating process for the vacuum environment, high vacuum. The pressure inside the coating machine is very low, the additives, grease and water in the product will overflow, so the product injection molding can not play demodulator, can not add plasticizer, can not directly add color powder forming.
PVD technology is easy to operate
Process characteristics of vacuum coating
1. Nanometer thickness and uniform film thickness. The film thickness of vacuum coating is only tens to hundreds of nanometers (generally 0.2um), and the thickness of each part of the film is extremely uniform. Example: when the thickness of aluminum coating reaches 0.9nm, it can conduct electricity. When it reaches 30nm, its performance is the same as that of solid aluminum. When silver coating is less than 5nm, it cannot conduct electricity. Each plastic product itself has a roughness of about 0.5um. Combined with the first factor, the plastic surface is sealed and leveled by UV spraying before coating to achieve an ideal mirror effect. Because coating film layer is too thin, reason is opposite bottom besmear UV material exterior requirement is close to demanding, this asks besmear room cleanness is extremely high. At the same time, the larger the surface area of the product, the higher the defect rate is likely to be (at present, the cleanliness of the oko production workshop is 10000, and the cleanliness of the spraying room, oven and coating workshop is 3000).
Coating thickness is mainly controlled by light transmittance and reflectance, the thicker the coating, the worse the light transmittance, the higher the reflectance.
2. Plating products placed with directional: in vertical, horizontal plating furnace, the product must be placed in parallel to the plating furnace tooling. Because metal materials with steam flow for straight or arc movement, and coating materials are generally placed in parallel with tooling.
Coating room space is certain, the larger the product surface area, the deeper the surface, the lower the production capacity, the corresponding production cost is higher.
3. After UV primer and coating, the surface of the product is extremely fragile and sensitive, requiring special protection. Because the coating layer is only dozens of nanometers, the bottom coating UV layer surface is not good enough to have the ability to shield, the other coating is too thin, coating metal is extremely weak, easy to scratch, bruise. After the product primer is coated with UV, the coating cannot be fully inspected manually. (determine the yield by means of small batch trial production) in the process of operation, the surface of the product can be prevented from being polluted and damaged by means of special handles for jig, finger covers, masks and dust-free covers for vehicles.
4. The film material or steam inflow velocity is extremely high, and the incidence velocity of magnetron sputtering and evaporation gold-plated atoms is generally around 2000 m/s. The coating time of each furnace (accumulated incident precipitation time of metal atoms) is generally about 15-20 minutes, and the magnetron sputtering process varies. The production capacity of each furnace is about 450-800PCS/ furnace, taking the case of ordinary clamshell mobile phone as an example. The production capacity of each furnace varies with the size of products.
5, color production way diversification, currently there are three color production way: one, is in the UV or UV surface coating to add color essence. Since the chromophore will interact with UV ultraviolet light, so the general amount of about 5%; Second, the coating process is filled with gas, gas and metal materials reaction to obtain color (such as Ar2+O2+ aluminum metal can get black,O2+Al to get yellow); Three, is the aforementioned two combination of production. Generally speaking, the darker, thicker and brighter the color is; Poor adhesion (additive process).
6, coating with a wide range of metal materials, in addition to iron, all kinds of metals and metal alloys, can be used as a theoretical plating material. Commonly used have aluminium, copper, tin, nickel, chromium to wait. In addition, because the coating is a physical process, the performance of the product material itself has little impact.
7, coating products can achieve the quality level:
Adhesion: no shedding -. RCA wear resistance: 200-300 times.
Hardness: 1h-3habs +PC material generally in 500g wipe 1H; PMMA material can be up to 3H, or even 4H.
Other tests such as high and low temperature, cold and heat shock, salt spray test, uv test, cosmetics test, anti-artificial sweat test can meet the general requirements.
8, production process time limitations: because the metal coating exposed in the air for a long time will oxidize black, different materials oxidation speed is different, the tin coating oxidation speed is the fastest, 8H will be obvious black, in addition, primer UV static time is too long, paint film is too thick will also affect the coating adhesion. Therefore, the operating time interval between primer UV, coating and surface coating UV processes is generally limited to 8-12h according to the actual operating experience.
9, UV coating and coating construction characteristics: coating with UV primer and surface coating UV coating compared with ordinary plastic spraying UV coating has two distinct characteristics: 1) coating material composition of the solid content is high, the primer UV is the highest; 2) do not contain and cannot add ordinary spray with the inert solvent, special deployment of special solvent. Therefore, the amount and cost of the product per unit of coating is significantly higher than that of ordinary plastic spraying. In addition, the requirements for the UV energy range of primer UV, surface coating UV and chromatizer are also more stringent than that of ordinary UV. The general primer UV requires 800-1000mj/cm2 surface coating UV requires 900-1100 mj/cm2 different color chromatizer according to the actual situation to adjust the UV lamp energy. UV production filtration requirements are also more stringent than ordinary plastic UV, the general requirements of about 600 mesh filter for filtration. UV film thickness requirements for the bottom coating 18-25um, surface coating uv18-22um.
As the plastic material for vacuum coating, its most basic properties should include adhesion, vacuum discharge and heat resistance design, etc.
1, the adhesion: plated material should be combined with vacuum coating materials have good adhesion strength, it is generally believed polyester materials and the adhesion strength of the aluminum plating film layer (PET). The best measure of good adhesion performance is plastic surface free energy of general surface free energy (surface activity index) < 33-35 x 10-5 N/CM for weak polarity plastic (PP) commonly used level of adhesion of ABS plastic material to ABS + PC, PC and PVC. The adhesion between the vacuum coating and the material can be improved through the implementation of the primer coating, but also through chemical material cleaning, soaking, plasma pretreatment to improve.
2, vacuum gas: some material may contain volatile small molecules (including water, plasticizer, residual solvents, no reaction monomer, enhancer, etc.) in the vacuum state will be in the form of gas overflow, destroy the coating layer adhesion, smoothness and appearance. Material in normal temperature down is not obvious, but in the condition of vacuum, temperature rise, put the volume increase. Material made of different materials, the volume differences, such as general ABS, ABS + PC water content between 0.5% - 0.2% more, vacuum ABS deflated mainly contains moisture, CO and hydrogen, fiber, nylon, nylon + pva materials more easily moisture absorption, moisture content is more serious interference coating, to handle such problems currently has two kinds: one kind is preheating baking process, to control the water content below 0.1%. Another method is to use a primer UV seal. But content is too high not line, if plasticizer content 10% above plasticizer will overflow.
3, heat resistance, vacuum coating, no matter adopt what kind of process, the material must be facing test temperature, evaporation source of radiant heat and coating materials of high energy particles, atomic, molecular plasma gasification, etc., on the material of condensing heat and kinetic energy will make material (play) rapid heating up, if the material heat resistance is poor, vacuum coating will appear wrinkles, and even the overall shrinkage, excessive heating can also lead to plastic decomposition, coating blistering, peeling off.