Metal Materials And Surface Treatment Technology

- Aug 30, 2019-

Metal materials and surface treatment technology

 

Metals materials used more and more on the existing each kind of product, because the metal material more can reflect the product quality, highlight the brand value, and in many metals material, aluminum because of its easy processing, good visual effect, the surface treatment method is rich, the first adopted by each manufacturer, aluminum surface treatment is mainly divided into: sandblasting (form the pearl matte silver surface), polishing formation (mirror), drawing (form like satin effect), electroplating a layer of other metal (cover), spray other non-metallic coating (cover).

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For a long time, metal materials have been the most important structural and functional materials. Steel, copper alloy, aluminum alloy and nickel alloy are the most important and widely used traditional metal materials.

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In the modern industrial society represented by steel, iron and alloy, metal materials are widely used in various products. Metal materials have become a major material in modern design due to their excellent mechanical properties, machining properties and unique surface characteristics. Also because most metal materials have easy processing, good visual effects, strong sense of design presented, rich surface treatment means, bear the brunt of designers love.

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Classification of metal materials

metal material

black metal

Cast iron (carbon content 2.11%-4.0%)

Steel (carbon content 0.02%-2.11%) : carbon steel, alloy steel (including special alloy steel)



Industrial pure iron (carbon content not exceeding 0.02%)



non-ferrous metals

aluminum and aluminum alloy


Copper and copper alloys

 



Other non-ferrous metals: magnesium and magnesium alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, tin and tin alloys



special metal

Amorphous metal, high-strength high-mode al-li alloy, shape memory alloy, shock-absorbing alloy, superplastic alloy, hydrogen storage alloy, superconducting alloy, etc


 

Surface decoration technology of metal materials

 

Before the surface treatment of the metal material, the surface of the metal material has some defects, and the treatment of these defects requires the use of pre-treatment (pretreatment) process, so that the object can be treated to the surface state.

 

There are many processes and methods of pretreatment, the commonly used processes are mainly: mechanical treatment, chemical treatment, electrochemical treatment.

 

Mechanical treatment: such as cutting, grinding, sandblasting and other processing to clean up the surface of the object rust and oxide skin, the surface processing into a smooth, or with concave and convex shape;

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Chemical treatment: clean up the oil, rust and oxide on the surface.

Electrochemical treatment: mainly used to enhance the chemical removal of oil, corrosion process, sometimes also used to activate the surface state of metal products under weak corrosion.

Surface treatment of metal materials
Surface treatment technology is the necessary means of beautiful products, objects (products) to protect and beautify the appearance of products, mainly divided into: coloring process and texture process.

 

Surface coloring process
The surface coloring process of metal materials is to use heat treatment, mechanical, chemical, electrolysis and other methods to coat the surface layer of various colors on the surface of objects.

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Chemical coloring: the oxidized metal material is immersed into the organic/inorganic dye solution. The dye penetrates into the gap of the oxidized film on the metal surface and takes chemical or physical action to achieve the coloring.

 

Electrolytic coloring: the process of making a metal surface react to form a colored film in a specific solution by electrolysis. During the process, the metal cation will infiltrate into the gap of the oxidation film on the metal surface, thus making the oxidation film produce different color system. And color fastens according to what use material allocate and decide, common is red, green, blue, and bronze color fastens, brown fastens, gray fastens etc.

 

Anodizing: English name for Anodizing. In a particular solution, treated chemically or by electrolysis, a membrane of daughter-in-law dye is formed and colored by the dye. Anodized dye has bright color and wide color range, but its application is limited to aluminum, zinc, cadmium, nickel and other metal materials.

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Oxidation: it's called Microarc oxidation, MAO. It is a process in which ceramic oxide film is grown in situ on the surface of the material by applying high voltage in electrolyte solution. Because the oxidation solution mostly USES the alkaline solution, has little pollution to the environment. Micro-arc film has the advantages of both anodized film and ceramic coating. At present, the application scope is limited to aluminum, magnesium, titanium and other metal materials.

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Plating and coloring: deposit metal, metal oxide or alloy on the metal surface by means of electroplating, chemical plating or physical plating to form a uniform film with metal characteristics.

 

Coating and coloring: the organic coating is applied on the metal surface by dip coating, brush coating, spraying and other methods.

 

Blue coloring: blue is also called enamel. The crushed and ground enamel glaze is applied on the surface of metal products, and the film is formed after drying and high-temperature firing.

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Heat treatment coloring: Metal objects are heated in an oxidizing environment to form a dark oxidizing film on the surface.  During heat treatment, the color of the surface will be different with different heating time and thickness of oxidation film.

 

Traditional coloring techniques: fake rust, hot dip tin plating, gilding, gilding silver, and producing spots.

 

Surface texture process

 

Surface texture process of metal materials

Surface forging: use hammer heads of different shapes to forge metal objects, so as to form the texture of different shapes, which has the sense of layering and decoration.

 

Surface polishing: the use of soft polishing tools, or abrasive particles, or other polishing media on the surface of objects for decorative processing, common techniques are electropolishing, sandblasting polishing, mechanical polishing, hand polishing, etc. Polishing can only get a smooth surface, or have mirror luster surface, but can not improve the precision of objects, durability, corrosion resistance and other functions.

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Surface grinding and drawing: grinding materials are used to process the surface of objects through grinding appliances, forming similar lines on the surface of objects, reflecting the decorative effect of "metal texture". Because the surface wire-drawing treatment can reflect the texture of metal materials.

 

 

Surface inlaying: it is used to carve Yin patterns on the metal surface, insert delicate and soft metal materials such as gold and silver wires or gold and silver pieces, and then polish them flat to present a gorgeous decorative effect. As is shown in the figure, the traditional Chinese craft is wu tongzao silver.

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Etch on the surface: a mottled, old decorative effect etched by chemical acids that enriches the details of the design. The common process is: the surface of metal objects coated with a layer of asphalt, and then on the surface of asphalt carved decorative, will need to corrosion part of the metal exposed, corrosion according to the size of decorative requirements, choose immersion in chemical acid solution, or spray solution corrosion.


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