Characteristics of PVD nanocoatings
There are three basic methods for physical vapor deposition of nano-coatings: vacuum evaporation, sputtering and ion deposition.Vacuum evaporation is to vaporize the source material into particles (atoms or ions) by means of electron beam heating, laser heating, etc., and then deposit them on the surface of the workpiece to form a coating. The coating has relatively more pores, which has a general adhesion with the substrate. Sputtering plating takes the workpiece as the anode and the target as the cathode. The argon ion generated by argon ionization is utilized to blow out the target atoms and deposit them on the workpiece surface. The coating has fewer pores and is well combined with the substrate. Ion plating is to make the material into atoms by evaporation, sputtering or chemical methods and be ionized by the plasma around the substrate. Under the action of the electric field, the coating is formed by flying to the substrate with greater kinetic energy. The coating is uniform and dense, with basically no pores, and well combined with the substrate.
Titanium oxide nanofilms were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. The sputtering chamber pressure was pumped to 1.3 10-4pa, and then filled with Ar, O2 and CF4, the total pressure was 1.3pa (the amount of injection was controlled during sputtering). The thickness of the film is through under constant sputtering voltage (700 v) to change its control sputtering conditions, sputtering time base plate temperature control in 100 ~ 400 ℃. Electrochromic characteristics were found in LiC1O4 and propylene carbonate. However, the film surface is impacted by gas and charged particles, and the performance of the film is greatly affected by the plasma state, and the sputtering condition is not easy to be strictly controlled, which is also its biggest disadvantage.
In order to further improve the quality of nano-coating, various advanced PVD technologies have been developed and derived through the combination of various technologies. Various magnetron sputtering techniques have been developed by introducing magnetic field into the sputtering technique which is dominated by electric field. In order to strengthen the chemical process of film formation, reactive gas was introduced in the process of evaporation, sputtering and ion plating, thus reactive evaporation technology, reactive sputtering technology and reactive ion plating technology emerged. In addition, there are pulse laser deposition (PLD), magnetron sputtering (MSPLD), ionizedmagnetron sputtering (ionizedmagnetron sputtering), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), migration growth and other new membrane technology.
It can be seen that with the development of science and technology, the boundary between CVD and PVD is not clear, and the two permeate each other, thus making the two coating preparation technologies more perfect.
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