Vacuum coating technology and equipment two hundred years of development history
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A lot of people are investing in 3D glass and OLED projects, and to do these products well, you have to understand the most critical part, coating.
The following is the development history of the global coating technology. Maybe you can see it as the secret recipe of the family. As early as many years ago, someone made it and it has been industrialized for several rounds. After reading this article, you can also say, don't fool me, I also read the history of coating...
Chemical coating was first used to prepare protective film on the surface of optical element. Then, in 1817, Fraunhofe in Germany with concentrated sulfuric acid or nitric acid erosion of glass, occasionally obtain the first anti-reflection film, before 1835 someone with chemical wet separation deposition of silver mirror film they are the first preparation of optical film in the world. Later, various optical films were plated in chemical solutions and vapors. In the 1950s, except for some applications of anti-reflection film on large and fast window glass, chemical solution coating was gradually replaced by vacuum coating.
Vacuum evaporation and sputtering are the two most important processes for preparing optical films in industry. They were used on a large scale, in fact, after the advent of the oil diffusion pump, the mechanical pumping system, in 1930.
In 1935, a single antireflective film was developed for vacuum evaporation deposition. But it was first used after 1945 to coat lenses.
In 1938, the United States and Europe developed a double antireflective film, but it was not until 1949 that a quality product was produced.
In 1965, a wideband three-layer antireflection system was developed. In terms of reflective film, general electric produced the first aluminized lamp in 1937. Germany in the same year made the first medical wear - resistant hard rhodium film. In terms of filters, the metal-dielectric film Fabry-- --Perot interference filter was deposited in Germany in 1939.
In the field of sputtering coating, about 1858, British and German researchers have found the sputtering phenomenon in the laboratory. The technology has evolved slowly.
In 1955, after the high frequency sputtering technology was proposed by Wehner, sputtering coating developed rapidly and became an important optical thin film process. Existing deposition processes include bipolar sputtering, tripole sputtering, reactive sputtering, magnetron sputtering and double ion sputtering.
Since the 1950s, optical thin films have developed rapidly in coating technology and computer-aided design. In the aspect of coating, a series of new ion - based technologies were studied and applied.
In 1953, Auwarter of Germany applied for the patent of optical thin film for reactive evaporation plating and proposed to increase the chemical reactivity with ionized gas.
In 1964, Mattox ion plating system was introduced on the basis of previous research work. At that time, the ion system worked under 10Pa pressure and 2KV discharge voltage. It was used for coating wear-resisting and decorative purposes on metal, not suitable for optical thin film plating. Later, optical thin films were deposited on insulating materials such as glass by high frequency ion plating. Since the 1970s, a series of new techniques have been studied and applied, including ion-assisted deposition, reactive ion plating and plasma chemical vapor equalization. Because of the use of energetic ions, they provide sufficient activation energy and increase the reaction speed of the surface. The research and development direction of optical thin film manufacturing technology is to improve the mobility of adsorbed atoms and avoid the formation of columnar microstructure, so as to improve the properties of optical thin film to different degrees.
In fact, the development of vacuum coating process is far more complex. Let's take a look at this 200-year-old history of technology:
In the 19th century
Vacuum coating has a history of 200 years. In the 19th century, it was in the stage of exploration and preliminary study. The travails of the seeker were on full display during this time.
In 1805, the relationship between contact Angle and surface energy (Young) was studied.
A Fraunhofer is formed on a lens.
In 1839, research began on arc evaporation (Hare).
In 1852, he began to study vacuum sputtering coating (Grove; Pulker).
In 1857, the wire was vaporized in nitrogen to form a thin film (Faraday; Conn).
In 1874, it was reported to be made into a plasma polymer (Dewilde; Thenard).
In 1877, the vacuum sputtering deposition of thin films was successfully studied (Wright).
1880, hydrocarbon gas phase pyrolysis (Sawyer; Mann).
1887, vacuum evaporation of thin films (crucible)(Nahrwold; Pohl; Pringsheim).
In 1896, the chemical process for forming an antireflective film was developed.
In 1897, the hydrogen reduction method of tungsten tetrachloride (CVD) was successfully studied. Optical interferometry of film thickness (Wiener).
The first 50 years of the 20th century
1904 Edison was patented for sputtering silver on cylinders.
In 1907, the vacuum reaction evaporation technology (Soddy) was studied.
In 1913, research on adsorption isotherms (Langmuir,Knudsen,Knacke, etc.).
Thin film resistance deposited by sputtering on glass rods, 1917.
1920 Guntherschulzer, sputtering theory.
In 1928, vacuum vaporization of tungsten filament (Ritsehl,Cartwright, etc.).
In 1930, the true air phase vaporized to form ultrafine particles (pfunds).
In 1934, the winding plating of gold on translucent cellophane (Kurz,Whiley); Plasma cleaning of glass for film deposition (Bauer,Strong).
In 1935, vacuum evaporation coiling coating of Cd:Mg and Zn for metal paper capacitors was successfully studied (Bausch,Mansbridge). Strong glass for paloma's 100-inch telescope; Optical lens coated with a single layer of anti-reflection film (Strong,Smakula); Study on the growth morphology of metallic films (Andrade,Matindale).
In 1937, a sealed beam head using a lead reflector was developed (Wright). Vacuum winding evaporative coating (Whiley) was successfully developed. Penning magnetron enhanced sputtering coating was successfully developed.
In 1938, the Berghaus was patented for evaporation after ion bombardment of the surface. 1939 double antireflection coating was successfully applied (Cartwright,Turner).
In 1941, vacuum aluminized mesh was made into foil for radar.
In 1942, three antireflective coatings were plated (Geffcken). The metal ion source for isotope separation has been successfully developed.
In 1944, the electronic cleaning of glass was developed (Rice,Dimmick).
In 1945, many women Banning multiple optical filters (Banning,Hoffman).
In 1946, the thickness of thin films was measured by X-ray absorption method (Friedman,Birks). Goodfellow company of the United Kingdom.
In 1947, the mirror of the 200-inch telescope was aluminum plated.
In 1948, the national optical laboratory (OCLI) was established. Vacuum rapid evaporation of deposited particles (Harris, Siegel); The film thickness is controlled by the light transmittance (Dufour).
In 1949, studies on the growth morphology of nonmetallic films (Schulz).
In 1950, sputtering theory was established (Wehner). The semiconductor industry began to take off; A variety of microelectronics industry began to take off; Development of cold light mirror (Turner, Hoffman, Schroder); Plastic decorative film began to appear (Holland et al.
The last 50 years of the 20th century
This was the 50 years that thin-film technology took off. The development of vacuum acquisition and vacuum measurement is the decisive factor for the rapid industrialization of thin film technology.
In 1952, the sputtering cleaning method for automatic surface cleaning was successfully developed. New reaction evaporation methods (Auwarter, Brinsmaid) were studied. The corrosion resistant plasma polymer film was studied.
1953 the American vacuum society was founded; Antireflective film materials made by winding and coating (3M).
In 1954, the company began to develop a new vacuum evaporative coiling and coating machine (Leybold company).
In 1955, electron beam evaporation technology for thin film deposition began to mature (Ruhle). An rf sputtering method for dielectric (Wehner) was proposed.
1956 the first American automobile with a metal coating was introduced (Ford motor company).
In 1957, the vacuum cadmium plating method was accepted by the aviation industry. Reaction evaporation method of optical film was studied (Brismaid,Auwarter et al.). American vacuum coating society was founded.
In 1958, the film epitaxial growth technology was successfully developed (Gunther). NASA was founded.
1959 magnetic tape coating equipment developed (Temescal corporation).
In 1960, the polymer surface plasma active deposition method appeared (Sharp,Schorhorm). Development of ion source for electric propulsion device (Kauffman); The quartz crystal film thickness measuring instrument has been developed successfully.
Low-emissivity glass was developed in 1961 (Leybold); Began to study the sputtering yield of elements (Laegried,Yamamura, etc.).
In 1962, the sputtering method for chemical analysis was studied. Arc vapor deposition of carbon (Massey) and metal (Lucas); Rf sputtering method for cleaning medium (Stuart,Anderson et al.); Leybold's products entered the American market; So let's think about the vapor pressure of the element.
In 1963, continuous coating equipment with partial atmospheric exposure (Charschan,Savach, etc.) was developed. The ion plating process has been successfully developed (Mattox).
In 1964, the PECVD(plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) method for photovoltaic films was successfully developed (Bradley et al.).
In 1965, bias sputtering deposition method was successfully developed (Maissel et al.). The laser vapor deposition method for thin films was successfully developed (Smith,Turner). The rf sputtering deposition method of insulating materials was successfully developed (Davidse,Anderson et al.). The pulsed laser deposition method was successfully developed (Smith et al.); The multilayer vacuum metal mesh belt film for acetate film was successfully developed (Galileo).
In 1966, ion aluminized reactors (Mattox, etc.); The ion coating of soft metal used as lubricant was successfully developed (Spalvins). Good adhesion of sunlight reflection film (3M company).
In 1967, sputtering chromium plating on cutter was successfully achieved (Lane). The vacuum ion coating method has been patented (Mattox). Tripole sputtering method was successfully developed (Baun,Wan, etc.). Mattox deposition at high vacuum.
In 1968, in a rotating tank, a small part of the ion coating (Mattox,Klein), a process that became known in the aerospace industry as ion vapor deposition.
In 1969, magnetron sputtering was carried out inside the hemispherical parts, and multiple sputtering sources were patented (Mullay). Leybold's new sputtering film coater came out. Evaporation film morphological chart published.
In the 1970s, various vacuum coating technologies were applied in an industrial scale. The development of thin film technology has entered a golden age.
In 1970, the hollow cathode electronic source with vacuum evaporation was successfully developed (ULVAC); A high deposition rate multilayer optical coating machine (OCLI) was developed. Hollow cathode ion coating equipment appeared in Japan (ULVAC corporation).
Companies that coated glass with ion bombardment sprang up in many countries in 1971. Hard carbon film was successfully developed (Aisenberg et al.); Patented magnetron sputtering method in conical components (Clarke); The anode arc evaporation source at any position appears (Snaper, Sablev); During evaporation, the plasma of the active gas is activated (Heitman, Auwarter, etc.). Development of aluminized cigarette wrapping paper (Galileo); An ion coating device using an electron beam evaporation source appears (Chamber corporation).
In 1972, the Tagaki method was developed. High vacuum sputtering coating device with ion gun (Weissmantel); Study on synchronous bombardment effect of membrane morphology (mattox et al.); Thin - wire coating equipment has been widely used.
In 1973, the electroplating industry adopted new high-quality and inexpensive ion coating equipment (Bell company); Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in flat plate reactors (Reinberg).
In 1974, the ultra-violet -- ozone cleaning technology appeared (Sowell, Cuthrell, etc.). Study on compressive stress in ion bombardment films (Sowell,Cuthrell et al.); The technology of planar magnetic control coating was patented (Chapin).
In 1975, reactive ion coating technology was successfully developed (Murayama et al.). · patented cylindrical cathode magnetron sputtering technology (Penfold, etc.) Ⅲ - Ⅴ clan semiconductor material molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) successfully developed (Cho, Arthur); Alternating ion coating technology was successfully developed (Schiller); Chevrolet appears on the frame of a car.
In 1976, the ion gun was used to deposit films in a synchronous bombardment (Weissmantel).
In 1977, the medium-frequency planar magnetron reactive sputtering deposition method was successfully developed (Cormia, etc.). Vacuum winding plating of ITO film was successfully developed (Sierracin, Sheldahl, etc.). · developed the online sputtering coating equipment for curtain wall glass (AircoTemescal); Sputtering thin film morphology (Thornton et al.); Sputter - heated mirror coating (Chahroudi) on thin wire. In 1978, optical diffraction film was successfully plated on thin web (Coburn company); Development of controllable arc evaporation source (Dorodnov); Development of plasma dark arc evaporation (Aksenov et al.); The window was successfully developed by ITO film sputtering (later referred to as CP)
In 1979, commercial on-line low-emissivity glass coating equipment was put into use. Sputtering deposition network film to achieve industrialization (CormiaChahroudi company); Patented planar magnetron cathode sputtering (BOCCT); A new online high deposition rate glass sputtering coating device (Leybold).
In 1980, ion gun was used to improve the stress of steamed chromium film (Hoffman, Gaerttner). The first large-size sputtering coiling and coating device came out (Leybold); Multi-arc vapor deposition has been industrialized in the United States. Ag - based thermal control coating to achieve industrialization (Leubold company).
In 1981, physical vapor deposition was used to coat the hard film on tools. Decorative and multifunctional membranes for hardware (Leybold); Sputtering ion plating of decorative film (Leybold company); Sputtering coil plating device (Leybold); Online ITO -- Ag -- ITO coating device with high deposition rate (Leybold); A silver-coated reflective film was developed (3M).
In 1982, the gas phase evaporation of ultrafine particles was industrialized (ULVAC company). Patented rotating magnetron cylindrical cathode (Mckelvey); Titanium rotary plane sputtering target successfully developed (TicoTitanium).
In 1983, studies on the enhancement of chemical activity by bombardment (Lincoln,Geis et al.); The rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering target was successfully developed (Robinson). High-density optical disc (Phillips,Sony); Industrialization of network coating equipment for magnetic tape (Leybold); Metallization fine mesh is formed when vacuum degree of evaporation zone changes constantly (Galileo company).
1984 grid plating of a-si photovoltaic films (energycon devices).
In 1985, vacuum evaporation of multilayer polymer films was patented (GE). In 1986, research on non-equilibrium magnetron sputtering (Windows, etc.).
Laser peel deposition of HTS thin films (Dijkkamp et al.); The rasterless hall ion source was successfully developed (Kaufman, Robinson et al.). Color inkjet printing (OCLI).
In 1988, double-cathode medium frequency sputtering ion source was successfully developed (Este et al.). Industrialization of dc cylindrical rotating magnetron sputtering technology (BOCCT); The pressure pulse method for controlling the stress of sputtering films has been successfully developed (Cuthrell, Mattox).
In 1989, the kotolz functional film came out, now commonly known as CP film.
In 1990, dual-ac if magnetron sputtering technology became mature (Leybold); Development of fine mesh coating equipment for financial cabinet security (ULVAC company); A shaking table for fine screen coating was successfully developed (Leybold); The intermediate frequency reactive sputtering deposition method of alumina was successfully developed (Leybold company).
In 1991, acrylic polymer coating was successfully applied. ZrN decoration film industrialization (Leybold).
In 1993, the scraper coating technology was patented (Gillette company);
In 1995, the silicon oxide barrier film was patented (BOCCT company); A successful online cluster sputtering coating technology for automotive headlights (Leybold).
In 1997, the acrylic polymer coating technology was renamed delta V technology; TaN and Cu were plated on silicon by physical vapor deposition (IBM). Development of off-line cluster coating equipment for decorative film (Leybold).
In 1998, the scraper coating equipment with filter arc source was put into production (Gillette company).
In 1999, delta V technology for large area of glass longitudinal coating.