metallic materials used in vacuum systems-stainless steel
Overview of stainless steel
In vacuum technology, stainless steel is the preferred material for the construction of Chambers or components. The strength of stainless steel at flange connections is sufficient - it will not affect its hardness even during baking. It can be welded to ensure a vacuum seal and its surface is sufficiently passivated to provide adequate protection for many applications.
The following table lists the chemical composition and properties of stainless steel commonly used in vacuum technology.
Note: chemical composition (mass fraction) of stainless steel according to EN100881, part 1, European standards for naming materials
Chemical composition of stainless steel (mass fraction) according to AISI and Material Designation Standards
Common European steel Numbers can be compared with AISI (American Iron and Steel Association) similar material names, such as 1.4301 for 304, 1.4307 and 1.4306 for 304L, 1.4404 and 1.4435 for 316L and 1.4429 for 316LN. However, the material is only about the same. Most of the differences in vacuum applications are very small. For special requirements, however, generality must be evaluated separately for individual cases. Example: If a part requires material 1.4301, a certificate of relevant material is generally required. If the certificate shows only material 304, the requirement is not met. At this point, the name in the certificate is important. The manufacturer may also certify that the semi-finished product has several names if the appropriate material specifications are met. For example, if the material is proven to be 1.4301, 1.4307, 304, and 304L, the use will be more diverse.
In order to avoid problems, such as the acceptance of semi-finished products or components during the system acceptance process, the requirements for materials and their certificates must be specified in advance. Subsequent certification is usually not possible, especially for special requirements: for example, due to special mechanical properties, limitations in chemical composition or certification under AD2000W2 (Pressure Vessel Working Group, Schedule 2000W2, "Materials for Pressure Vessels") or ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
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